Ch. 15 + 16 equilbrium I test 85 points AP Chemistry

Show your work in an organized manner, include any relevant formula / conversion factors, have the proper units in your work, and proper number of significant figures in your answer.

Academic Honesty: The answers on this test are my own and I am using only the allowed set of notes as described in the syllabus. I have not discussed the test questions with anyone before or during the test nor have I seen the test questions prior to the exam. If you violate any of the preceding items or do not sign, your semester grade is a F.

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1. List 2 conditions for a reaction to be at equilibrium. [10 points]


2. Write the algebraic expression for the equilibrium constant for the following reactions. [10 points]

a. NO (g) + Cl2 (g) <--> NOCl (g)

Kp =

b. CO2 (g) + H2 (g) <--> CO2 (g) + H2O (l)

Kc =

3. For the reaction: N2 (g) + H2 (g) <--> NH3 (g) { ∆H < 0 } at equilibrium, how would [H2] and [NH3] change immediately after the following disturbance to the system ? rationalize your response. [20 points]

a. the addition of Ne

b. removal of N2 (g)

c. increase in the volume of the system

d. cooling the system

4. Regarding 25 mL of a 10.0 mM benzoic acid solution, [15 points]

a. calculate the pH of the solution

b. calculate its % ionization


5. Calculate the pH of 75 mL of a 10.0 mM sodium lactate solution. [15 points]

6. old topic. [15 points]

a. identify and rationalize the type of hybrid orbital in Br in BrF3

b. describe the formation of the hybrid orbital in Br.

c. using valence bond theory (include the identity of the hybrid orbital and atomic orbital involved), describe the covalent bonds in BrF3.