Various tables - related to writing net ionic equations


table 2.4 & 2.5 name of cations & anions

charge symbol name   charge symbol name
1 + H hydrogen   1 - H hydride
  Li lithium     F fluoride
  Na sodium     Cl chloride
  K potassium     Br bromide
  Cs cesium     I iodide
  Ag silver     CN cyanide
  NH4 ammonim     OH hydroxide
  Cu copper I or cuprous     C2H3O2 or CH3COO acetate
          ClO3 chlorate
2 + Mg magnesium     ClO4 perchlorate
  Ca calcium     NO3 nitrate
  Sr strontium     MnO4 permanganate
  Ba barium        
  Zn zinc   2 - O oxide
  Cd cadmium     O2 peroxide
  Co cobalt II or cobaltous     S sulfide
  Cu copper II or cupric     CO3 carbonate
  Fe iron II or ferrous     CrO4 chromate
  Hg2 2+ mercury I or mercurous     Cr2O7 dichromate
  Hg2+ mercury II or mercuric     SO4 sulfate
  Ni nickel        
  Pb lead II or plumbous   3 - N nitride
  Sn tin II or stannous     PO4 phosphate
3 + Al aluminum        
  Cr chromium III or chromic        
  Fe iron III or ferric        


table 2.6 prefixes to name covalent compounds

prefix means
mono- 1
di- 2
tri- 3
tetra- 4
penta- 5
hexa- 6
hepta- 7
octa- 8
nona- 9
deca- 10


table 4.1 list of common strong acids & bases

as a strong acid or strong  base completely dissociates, it should be written in terms of its ions (cancell any spectator ions).  on the other hand, a weak acid or weak base should be written as its chemical formula, since it does not dissociate (much)

strong acids strong bases
Chloric, HClO3 group 1A metal hydroxides [LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH]
hydrobromic, HBr group 2A metal hydroxides [Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 ]
hydrochloric, HCl  
hydroiodic, HI  
nitric, HNO3  
perchloric, HClO4  
sulfuric, H2SO4  


table 4.2 solubility rules - based on anions

soluble compounds; containing exceptions
NO3 - none
CH3COO- or C2H3O2- none
halides: Cl, Br, I salts of Ag+, Pb2+, Hg2 2+  ["AP & Honors"]
SO42- salts of Ca2+, Hg22+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ ["ch pbs"]
insoluble compounds; containing exceptions
S2- salts of NH4+, alkali metal cations, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+  ["cbs"]
CO32-& PO43- salts of NH4+, alkali metal cations
OH- salts of alkali metal cations, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+ ["cbs"]


table of common oxidizing / reducing agents

common oxidizing agents products formed

MnO4- in acidic solution

Mn2+ + water

MnO2 in acidic solution

Mn2+ + water

MnO4- in neutral / basic solution

MnO2 + water

Cr2O72- in acidic solution

Cr3+ + water

HNO3, concentrated

NO2 + water

HNO3, dilute

NO + water

H2SO4, hot, concentrated

SO2 + water

metallic ion (higher oxidation #)

metallous ion (lower oxidation #)

free halogen, e.g. I2

halide, e.g. I-



HClO4 [perchloric acid]


C2O4 2- [oxalic acid]


H2O2 [hydrogen peroxide]



H2 + OH-

common reducing agents products formed

halide ions, I-

free halogen, e.g. I2

free metals

metal ions

SO2 - [sulfite]

SO42- [sulfate ion]

NO2 - [nitrite]

NO3- [ nitrate ion]

free halogen in dilute basic solution

hypohalite ion, e.g. ClO -

free halogen in concentrated basic solution

halate ions, e.g. BrO2 -

metallous ion (lower oxidation #)

metallic ion (higher oxidation #)


O2 + H+


Subject: Re: Colors
From: Scott H <>
Date: Wed, 18 Apr 2007 21:01:41 -0700 (PDT)
X-Message-Number: 5

Here is my list:

flame color test    
  Li+ Deep red (crimson)
  Na+ Yellow
  K+ Violet
  Ca2+ Orange-red
  Sr2+ Red
  Ba2+ Green
  Cu2+ Blue-green
Aqueous Ion Colors    
  Cu+ green
  Cu2+ blue
  Fe2+ yellow-green (depending on the anion)
  Fe3+ orange-red (depending on the anion)
  Co2+ Pink 
  Cr3+ Violet (Cr(NO3)3 to Green (CrCl3)
  Ni2+ green
  Mn2+ pink
  Pb2+   & Pb4+ colorless
  V2+ violet
  V3+ blue-green
  MnO4- Purple
  CrO42- Yellow
  Cr2O72- Orange
  Cu(NH3)42+ Dark Blue
  FeSCN2+ Red-brown, Wine-red to dark orange
  CoCl42- Blue
  Ti(H2O)63+ Purple
  Al3+, K+, Li+, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Zn2+ colorless
other molecules    
  F2 pale yellow gas
  Cl2 green-yellow gas
  Br2 red-brown gas
  I2 dark-violet vapor & dark metallic solid
  S8 yellow, odorous solid
  NO colorless gas; product of metal & dilute HNO3
  NO2 brown gas; product of metal & conc HNO3
  PbI2 bright yellow
  metallic sulfides sulfides of transition metals tend to be black
  Fe2O3 reddish brown; rust
  metallic oxides oxides of transition metals have various colors
pH indicator    
  phenolphthalein colorless @ pH < 8; pink @ pH > 8
  red litmus (paper) purple in alkaline solution
  blue litmus (paper) pink in acidic solution

I hope this helps.

-S Halander
Westview HS

table 24.1  common ligands associated with complex ion (partial)

symbol name
NH3 ammine (not amine)
H2O aqua
OH- hydroxo
SCN- thiocyanato
Cl- chloro
Br- bromo
CN- cyano


table 25.1  alkanes

name molecular formula condensed structural formula
methane CH4 CH4
ethane C2 H6 CH3 CH3
propane C3 H8 CH3 (CH2 )CH3
butane C4 H10 CH3 (CH2 )2 CH3
pentane C5 H12 CH3 (CH2 )3 CH3
hexane C6 H14 CH3 (CH2 )4 CH3
heptane C7 H16 CH3 (CH2 )5 CH3
octane C8 H18 CH3 (CH2 )6 CH3
nonane C9 H20 CH3 (CH2 )7 CH3
decane C10 H22 CH3 (CH2 )8 CH3


table 25.4 organic functional groups  [R & R' = alkyl group; may be same or differ]

funtional group type of compound
C - C alkane
C = C alkene
C = C alkyne
R - O - H alcohol
R - O - R' ether
R - X haloalkane
R - N-

R - C - H

R - C - R'
R - C - O - H
carboxylic acid
R - C - O - R'
       ll     l
R - C - N -



return to summary page for writing net ionic equations