Ch. 11 & 12  atomic theory & bonds    test     [70 points]                   honors Chem


For problems involving calculations, show your work in an organized manner, include any relevant equation (or formula and conversion factor(s)), put the proper units in your calculations / answer, and have the proper number of significant figures in your answer.                  Clearly identify the problems done and do them in sequence and your answer must begin and end on the same page of paper; otherwise, you may lose points.



Academic Honesty:   The answers on this test are my own and I am using only the allowed set of notes as described in the syllabus.  I have not discussed the test questions with anyone before or during the test nor have I seen the test questions prior to the exam.  If you violate any of the preceding items or do not sign, your semester grade is a F.


                                                                                                Signature:  ___________________


1.  Sketch the orbital diagram of  __.  [10 points]


a.  bismuth  ↑↓ ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓   ↑↓     ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓  ↑↓                           

                             6s               4f                                                             5d                                       6p            



b.  sulfur       ↑↓       ↑↓    


                                 3s        3p


2.  Sketch the following atomic orbital including the x-, y-, & z- axis, as needed, to illustrate the relationship of these orbitals to the x-, y-, & z- axis.  [15 points]

a.  py   pair of lobes along y-axis



b. dz 2    pacificer along z-axis


c.  dyz    4 leaf clover between y- & z- axis


3.  What is the relative 1st ionization energy between boron versus carbon ?  Justify your response.  [10 points]    blah blah; sorry



4.  Sketch the Lewis structure(s) of __.   [10 points]


a.  phosphorus tri-fluoride 


b.  nitrate ion


5. In regards to SF4   [25 points]

a.  draw its Lewis structure

b.  rationalize why hybrid orbitals are needed

c.  identify the type of hybrid orbitals needed; justify / rationalize your response.

d.  describe the process of forming the hybrid orbital needed starting from the orbital diagram of the central atom.

e.  use valence bond theory to describe the bonds in this compound