Use of atomic orbital generating program: orbital viewer  [download] ;  alternative site displays electron volume space rather than electron density map [requires java]

This program has the following options


1.  open program: “ov.exe” [available on the school's PC in the student files / science application]

2.  select: “new”, which generates a default atomic orbital


3.  select “orbitals” (“ Ψ=”), which opens-up its dialog box. enter the values of the desired quantum numbers (n, l, m), # protons, and atomic mass, then press “Done”.


simulate the nucleus of the hydrogen isotope, 1H: 

# protons = 1;   mass = 1;   units = amu  [default values],  i.e. do not change default values.  [change these values accordingly to simulate another atom's nucleus]

the values of the various 3 quantum numbers (n, l, m) determine the AO's properties; the following choices are available:

AO n l m
1s 1 s 0
2s 2 s 0
2p 2 p -1, 0, 1
3s 3 s 0
3p 3 p -1, 0, 1
3d 3 d -2, -1, 0, 1, 2
4s 4 s 0
4p 4 p -1, 0, 1
4d 4 d -2, -1, 0, 1, 2
4f 4 f -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3


4.  image manipulation

a.  to rotate the image, position your mouse over the image, while holding-down the left mouse button, move the mouse.

b. to select between "electron density map” versus “electron volume map ” view, where

electron density map = density of dots is proportional to the probability of finding an electron

electron volume map = shows the region in space, where the probability of finding an electron is 90%,

select:  Display --> Render Options…

in "Precise Rendering Method" column, select:

“points” - for "electron density map"

“polygons” - for "electron volume map"

select: "Done"

c.  to view multiple orbitals (to be able to compare them)


e. to view a cross-section, select: Display --> Cutaway …, which opens-up its dialog box.


Select: “Plane”; set beta= “90” & Units = “degrees”, then “Done”. You may need to rotate the image to see the effect.