Phet - chemistry; some simulations requires java plug in.

simulation has multiple potential lesson plans, which could be used as a potential inquiry group work activity and / or illustration during "lecture".


ch. 6 Electronic structure of atoms [Brown et al.]

Beer's law: measure absorbance as a function of concentration, pathlength, & wavelength.

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.

Beer's Law Lab Screenshot

Bohr model & spectroscopy: electron orbit transition as emission / absorption of light.


Models of the Hydrogen Atom Screenshot

photoelectric effect: illustrates Einstein's equation: E(incident) = W + KE.


Photoelectric Effect Screenshot

spectroscopy: animation somewhat crudely illustrate that different molecules absorb / emitt different type of light.


ch. 10 gas [Brown et al]

gas: measure T & P and histogram of speed & KE as a function of # gas molecules & heat / cool & gas mass.

Gas Properties Screenshot


ch. 11 modern atomic theory [Zumdahl et al.]

Rutherford scattering: while there's a flaw in the simulation (i.e. inaccurate scale), it can illustrate the deflection of bombarding alpha particles by an atom's nucleus as a function of the alpha particles' KE.

Rutherford Scattering Screenshot

atomic structure: relate (i) # protons, # neutrons, & mass #; (ii) charge & # electrons / protons; (iii) game related to preceding concepts.

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.

Build an Atom Screenshot

isotope & average atomic mass: (i) stability of nucleus as a function of the # neutrons, (ii) isotope symbols, and (iii) average atomic mass based on relative amount of various isotopes.


average atomic mass

ch. 12 chemical bonding [Zumdhal et al.]

VSEPR: show bond angles & shape of molecules


Molecule Shapes Screenshot

molecular polarity: show dipole moment & electrostatic potential surface

Molecule Polarity Screenshot

ch. 7 chemical equations [Zumdahl et al.]

balancing chemical equation: shows molecules / atoms in chemical reaction; also, show atoms via balance or bar chart. there's a game in balancing chemical equations without prior bar chart or balance.

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.

Balancing Chemical Equations Screenshot

limiting reactant: uses sandwich example, 3 chemical equations with particulate diagrams, & games, where able to vary the level of "hints", which determines the level of difficulty.

sandwich screen shot




ch. 5 measurement & calculation [Zumdahl et al.]

density: multiple simulations: (i) measure mass & volume of various objects to determine its density, (ii) same mass, but different volume, (iii) same volume, but different mass, and (iv) unknown object with table of density - to identify object. lab handout

Density Screenshot

ch. 15 solutions [Zumdahl et al.]

solution concentration: simulate effect on concentration by (i) addition of solute as solid or solution, and (ii) addition or removal of solvent.

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.



Concentration Screenshot


solution: simulate various aspects of solution.

Sugar and Salt Solutions Screenshot

macro tab: simulate effect of (i) dissolving solid salt or sugar and (ii) add / remove solvent on solution conductivity

micro tab: simulate effect of (ii) adding different solid ionic compound or sugar and (ii) add / remove water on [solute]

water tab: simulate hydration shell around ions and sugar in water.

solution: simulate various aspect of solution

Salts & Solubility Screenshot

tablet salt tab: show relative amount of dissolved versus undissolved species

slightly soluble salt tab: similar to preceding simulation, but get a saturated solution quicker than preceding simulation

design a salt: as preceding simulation, where able to simulate various Ksp values [probably inappropriate for regular chemistry class]

ch. 16 acid & base [Zumdahl et al]

acid base: shows relative amount of acid / base, anion, & cation, as well as, simulate use of pH probe / pH paper / conductivity probe. able to simulate the effect of acid / base strength on the preceding parameters.

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.

Acid-Base Solutions Screenshot

pH: simulate effect of adding water and acid / base on pH, [H +], & [OH -].

if the java based simulation doesn't work, try the html5 version of the simulation.


pH Scale Screenshot


blah blah --- pending evaluation

kinetics: blah blah -- pending

Reactions & Rates Screenshot


deleted other simulations (since believe not "valuable"); not shown above

accessed Phet website on Oct 2014; so this website would not reflect any revision / addition / deletion of simulations after Oct 2014.


based on somewhat superficial review of content at ACS Virtual chemistry & simulations website; access content on July 2020; so not reflect any revisions / addition / deletion after this date

AACT simulation / animation; access



gas law simulation

aact_gas law_sim

average atomic mass

aact_ave atomic mass

General Chemistry interactive simulations. very simplistic, not "engaging", but more convenient than me writing Excel simulations. access

ionic solubility

vining_ionic solubility

specific heat of metal I

vining_specific heat_flame

specific heat of a metal II

vining_specific heat_metal



Hess' law

vining_Hess law

speed histogram: effect of temperature & molar mass

vining_gas speed histogram

gas laws

vining_gas laws


kinetics: graphical analysis

vining_kinetics graphical analysis

upon reload webpage, changes rate law; believe error message is invalid

Arrenihus equation

vining_arrenihius eqn


there's more, but . . .you explore




Bertrand's simulated experiments; access

seem to have terse directions, so maybe inappropriate for HS students without teacher support. feel free to explore. upon reload webpage, changes the problem

 other  - misc simulations

 CT interactive = links to misc simulations